The Health News United Kingdom October 20 2017

  • French scientists say they may have found a potential cause of dyslexia which could be treatable, hidden in tiny cells in the human eye. In a small study they found that most dyslexics had dominant round spots in both eyes – rather than in just one – leading to blurring and confusion.
  • Research has revealed that self-harm reported to GPs among teenage girls under the age of seventeen in the UK increased by 68% over just three years.  The study also found that self-harm among young people aged 10 to 19 was three times more common among girls than boys, with those who self-harmed at much greater risk of suicide than those who did not.
  • Scientist say that a drug to dramatically cut the risk of HIV infection during sex would save the UK around £1bn over the next 80 years. The team at University College London says Prep, or pre-exposure prophylaxis, is a “no-brainer” for the NHS. The study predicts that giving Prep to men who have sex with men would prevent one in four HIV cases. NHS England is currently funding a trial of Prep in ten thousand patients, but does not offer the treatment routinely.

News on Health Professional Radio. Today is the 20th of  October 2017. Read by Tabetha Moreto. Health News

http://www.bbc.com/news/health-41666320

French scientists say they may have found a potential cause of dyslexia which could be treatable, hidden in tiny cells in the human eye. In a small study they found that most dyslexics had dominant round spots in both eyes – rather than in just one – leading to blurring and confusion. UK experts said the research was “very exciting” and highlighted the link between vision and dyslexia. But they said not all dyslexics were likely to have the same problem.
People with dyslexia have difficulties learning to read, spell or write despite normal intelligence.
Often letters appear to move around and get in the wrong order and dyslexic people can have problems distinguishing left from right.

Human beings have a dominant eye in the same way that people have a dominant left or right hand. In the University of Rennes study, published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, scientists looked into the eyes of thirty non-dyslexics and thirty dyslexics.
They discovered differences in the shape of spots deep in the eye where red, green and blue cones – responsible for colour – are located. In non-dyslexics, they found that the blue cone-free spot in one eye was round and in the other eye it was oblong or unevenly shaped, making the round one more dominant. But in dyslexic people, both eyes had the same round-shaped spot, which meant neither eye was dominant. This would result in the brain being confused by two slightly different images from the eyes.

Professor John Stein, dyslexia expert and emeritus professor in neuroscience at the University of Oxford, said having a dominant spot in one eye meant there were better connections between the two sides of the brain and therefore clearer vision. He said the study was “really interesting” because it stressed the importance of eye dominance in reading. But he said the research gave no indication of why these differences occurred in some people’s eyes. He said the French test appeared to be more objective than current tests, but was unlikely to explain everyone’s dyslexia. Dyslexia is usually an inherited condition which affects ten percent of the population, but environmental factors are also thought to play a role.

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/oct/18/self-harm-girls-aged-13-to-16-rose-68pc-three-years

Research has revealed that self-harm reported to general practitioners among teenage girls under the age of seventeen in the UK increased by sixty eight percent over just three years.  The study also found that self-harm among young people aged ten to nineteen was three times more common among girls than boys, with those who self-harmed at much greater risk of suicide than those who did not. “One of the big messages here is that self-harm is complex – it is about schools, it is about families, it is about health professionals [and] teachers all working together trying to tackle the problem,” said Nav Kapur, professor of psychiatry and population health at the University of Manchester, and a co-author of the study.

Writing in the British Medical Journal, Kapur and colleagues describe how they looked at data from six hundred seventy four GP practices across the UK to explore the rates of self-harm among ten to nineteen year-olds. The results reveal that annually between two thousand one and two thousand fourteen, on average across ten to nineteen year-olds, thirty seven point four girls per ten thousand and just over twelve boys per ten thousand reported their first episode of self-harm. Repeat episodes of self-harm were more common among girls. The study also found self-harming to be more common among children and teenagers living in deprived areas. Such youngsters were less likely to be referred to mental health services within twelve months of their first incident than those in more affluent areas. Further analysis using additional data revealed that youngsters who self-harmed were about nine times more likely to die an unnatural death than those who did not, seventeen times more likely to die from suicide, and thirty four times more likely to die from acute alcohol or drug poisoning.

http://www.bbc.com/news/health-41637901

Scientist say that a drug to dramatically cut the risk of HIV infection during sex would save the UK around  one billion pounds over the next eighty years. The team at University College London says Prep, or pre-exposure prophylaxis, is a “no-brainer” for the NHS.
The study predicts that giving Prep to men who have sex with men would prevent one in four HIV cases. NHS England is currently funding a trial of Prep in ten thousand patients, but does not offer the treatment routinely. Prep is already available in Scotland. The health service in England fought against paying for Prep in the courts, but agreed to trialling it in selected clinics.

Prep disables HIV before it gets a stranglehold in the body and trials show it can cut the risk of being infected by up to eighty six percent. The financial analysis, published in the Lancet Infectious Diseases, looked at the cost-effectiveness of a national roll-out of Prep, focusing on the highest risk group – men who have sex with men. It showed offering Prep would cost the NHS money initially as it paid for both Prep and lifelong care for people already infected with HIV. It could take up to forty years to become cost-effective, when savings from the falling number of new HIV cases equal the cost of Prep.

Doctor Alison Rodger, part of the UCL team, told the BBC: “Not only is it a highly effective treatment, it will save money. It’s a no-brainer so it’s a good thing to do.” The researchers’ mathematical model predicted: In the first year Prep was available, four thousand men would start taking it, rising to forty thousand within fifteen years; Men would take Prep for four point five years on average;  Men would take two pills before sex, followed by one-a-day until they had gone two days without condom-less sex;  Men would average five pills a week.

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